ûٻкšзҹǴآҾ (EIA/EHIA)

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ûٻкšзҧǴآҾ (EIA/EHIA)
ʶҹóѭмšз
. кšзǴ (Environmental Impact Assessment : EIA) ͧѲдԹҵ .. ҪѭѵѡҤسҾǴ觪ҵ ѵػʧͧС䡷Ӥѭ㹡þԨó繪ͺͧ˹§ҹҤѰ͡͹ѵçþѲҷҨԴšзǴе֧ͧآҾͧЪҪçèеͧաèѴ§ҹ EIA Сͺ¡äҴóлԹšз ֧ҵáûͧѹ/Ѵ/ŴеǨͺšзҨԴ鹵ǴآҾҹ кçҧͧèѴ§ҹ EIA ջѭ´ҹ觼ԴѴѧҡ ͧҡաûѺاѲкçҧդʹͧҷѹѺҾ¹ŧҧɰԨ ѧ ҾǴҧͧ ѧóշ§ҹ EIA ҹ繪ͺҡҤѰѺͶѺҡҤЪҪ (੾Ъ㹾鹷ç) 㹢зҢͧçúҧǹշȹԵ§ҹػä͡â͹ѵç ֧ԴùҵáТʹе͡Ŵšзҡç÷§ҹԴª駵ͼСͺԨЪҧԧ ա§ҹá ӤѭͼšзҧҹآҾͧЪҪҡ յҧóդѴʹյ ç俿 ԤصˡҺҾش ֧Դ㹡ûѺاк EIA
. Ѱ٭ҪҳҨѡ طѡҪ ҵ äͧ ѭѵ “ôԹç͡ԨҨԴšзͻЪҪҧعç駷ҧҹҾǴ Ѿҡøҵ آҾ Сз֡лԹšзͤسҾǴآҾͧЪҪ㹪ѴաкǹѺѧԴ繢ͧЪҪмǹ¡͹...” 㹻 .. ֧աüǡšзҹآҾ (Health Impact Assessment : HIA) §ҹ EIA ͹䢢ͧѰ٭ .. Դ§ҹ EIA (óçþѲдѺ) EHIA (Environmental & Health Impact Assessment : EHIA) (óç͡Ԩ÷ҨԴšзعçͪ) Ѩغѹç͡Ԩ÷ͧ§ҹ EIA 㹢зç͡Ԩ÷ҨԴšзعçͪͧѴ EHIA ҧá к EIA/EHIA ѺûѺاҧͧ ѧѭҤѴ駷ҧѧդعçҡ з͹繶֧ҡͧѭԧçҧкѧѺҧԧкö˹ҷͧС䡷ջԷҾ§͵͡ûͧѹŴšзԴǴآҾ лѭҴѧա
. ѭԧçҧкͧôԹҹ EIA/EHIA ͡繻ѭԧѡк ѭҡèѴ§ҹ ѭҡþԨó§ҹлѭҡõԴǨͺлԹ ´ ѧ
. ѭԧѡк
.. EIA/EHIA 繡šз੾дѺçҹ աѧҴ֡㹻ѡҾ㹡ͧѺ (Carrying Capacity) ͧ鹷ҧҹǴ ѧآҾ) ֧繢ͨӡѴ EIA/EHIA §ҵáԧѺջԷҾѺúèѴǴҷ 觼ԴšзФѴ駵ͪdzͺç/Ԩù óչԤصˡҺҾش ҡѭһžɵǴо鹷§ Դʡ¡ͧͧҤЪҪ͡ǷҧҼšзԴǷҧ䢨֧ա¡дѺ§ҹ EIA ͺþѲдѺºдѺ鹷 ͵͡ҧἹºоѲҾ鹷дѺҧ ҧ׹ ͹ 㹻ѨغѹԨҡСǴ觪ҵ ( Զع¹ ) ˹ա÷ӡûԹǴԧطʵ (Strategic Environmental Assessment :SEA) ѧҴ§ҧ÷ SEA Ѻ EIA/ EHIA
.. ֡ҤФª (Feasibility Study) ͧç/Ԩ ѭ ѡɳ
) ¡ǹ֡Ҩҡ§ҹ EIA/EHIA EIA/EHIA öպҷ㹡þԨóҵѴԹ¹ŧѺç÷դ§٧͡ԴšзǴЪ Ҵǹ鹵͹èѴФѴ͡鹷ç ֧Դ鹡ǧҷҧ͡蹷դҡ ੾ҧçþѲҢҴ˭ çкâ觷ҧöж¡дѺ㹡ا෾ (çλ) Ҵ֡Ҥͧç öԹçԴԡ ç÷ҧҧ㹻Ѩغѹж繡٭͡ʷҧþѲҡԨöС䢻ѭҡèҨâͧا෾ҹ
) 鹷عԴ鹨ԧ ҧ鹷عҧǴе鹷عҧѧ ŵͺ᷹ҧɰԨԴ鹺Դ͹ҧѭҧͧ
.. кǹèѴ EIA/EHIA աкǹǹѺѧԴҤЪҪ (Public Hearing) ҡ 㹡ôԹҹԧѧҴèѴкǹǹҧդ ٻẺԸաѴúǹࡳ衮¡˹ ͡ҡ ѧջѭҴҹʢͧôԹ ͶͨҡҤЪҪ ҧóջѭʹյ óçáҧç俿ҷѧѴШǺբѹ (ç俿Թٴ-͹͡) ա͹ǤѴҹͧ㹾鹷ҧ Դûзҧ˹ҷͧѰҧعç ˵鹨ҡ÷˹§ҹҤѰҤ͡Թç ҴŢ稨ԧҧԪҡ (١ͧ) ͧç Դ͡ЪҪءдѺ㹾鹷ǹ㹡ѺʴԴдѺ§դ
.. 繷ҧҹ Ԩóͧ
) ѹʹͧͧк EIA/EHIA Ѻ ǢͧѺôԹç ¼ѧͧ ´ҹصˡ ҪѭѵԡùԤ ´ҹáҧҤ ·ͧѺҵáŴšзҹآҾ 繵 Һҧó㹢з§ҹ EIA/EHIA ѧҹ繪ͺ鹵͹ͧ աôԹç͡Ԩ鹵͹ͧ ǧ˹ Сçѹ͡þԨó繪ͺ§ҹ EIA/ EHIA
) ¢ͧ ѭѵ èѺѺкŧɢͧ·Ǣͧ
) ѧա·ӹҨ㹡þԨóѺЧѺç˹§ҹѺԴͺԨóç СǴ (..) ФСüӹҭ (.)
. ѭԧèѴ§ҹ
.. ѭѹͧҢͧçáѺѴ§ҹ /ѷ֡ҫ㹤ѹẺҨҧѺѺҧ ҨԴѭѡɳзѺҧ (Ѵ§ҹ/ѷ֡ҷѺ͹حҵҡ ʼ.) з§ҹ͵ͺʹͧͧâͧҨҧ (Ңͧç) 鹷§ҹ EIA/EHIA ҹ繪ͺ 觷Ҵ㹡÷ӧҹФسҾͧͧҹ§ҨԴªҧԧ
.. آͧ§ҹ EIA/EHIA ͧҡ㹻Ѩغѹաá˹آͧ§ҹӡ֡ ç÷ҹ繪ͺ§ҹҡԹ㹪ǧѹ Ҩ觼Сóͺҧͼšзҧ çѺš֡ҷ ҨҧµǴ ѧآҾҡ ֧Ƿҧ㹡á˹ءҹ EIA/EHIA ҹ繪ͺҡ .
.. ѭͧá˹çкѭ¡ 㹻Ѩغѹá˹ Ҵо鹷ç÷ͧա÷ EIA EHIA СȡзǧѾҡøҵǴ ѹ Զع¹ ԧҤ ӴѺǡ Ҩͺءç÷Դ§ ժͧҢͧçöա§÷§ҹ EIA/EHIA ¡ŴѧԵ ŴҴ鹷çӡࡳҵðҹͧѴ§ҹ ¹ŧçҢͧ͹حҵҧ Ŵӹǹͧͧç÷ѡ ŴҴѧԵͧç俿 繵
.. ѭͧз͹äҴó§ҧҹآҾ繨ԧͧ§ҹ EIA/EHIA ͡§ҧ ֧Ҵ§ҧšзҹǴѺšзҹآҾ ѴਹͧҵáŴšзҧآҾТҴǪҭѺԴͺѺеԴآҾ
. ѭԧþԨó§ҹ
.. ѭ㹴ҹҶ֧͡§ҹ EIA/EHIA ͧҤЪҪ 觼ŵͤͶ ҧ㨵͡кǹ÷ӧҹͧ˹§ҹҤѰмԷԨѴ§ҹ 㹺ҧóҨ§ҹҴóͧ ͧҡҤЪҪҴ͡㹡Ӥѭ㹾鹷СʹͤԴ
.. üš֡§ҹǷաǹͧҤЪҪ ٻẺ§ҹͧ§ҹҷ͹ҧҡ 繡֡Ẻ¡ǹл ͧ§ͧҡ Ѿ෤Ԥ͹ҧҡ 繵 ҡӼš֡ǧѺѧԴ繢ͧҤЪҪԴҡ Ѻ͹ͤ㨢ͧҤЪѧ
.. 繡觨ṡç͡ ˹ çâͧѰ/ç÷ͤ繪ͺҡѰ ͧ çâͧ͡/ çѰͧͤ繪ͺҡѰիջѭ ѧ
) ͧͧ˵ؼŷ㹡èṡç ͧҡ㹻Ѩغѹçèӹǹҡͧ͡çâҴ˭Ҩռšз٧ ͡ҡáԨǹҤѰԹٻҤ͡ (Privatization) þԨóçôѧ㹰ҹçâͧ͡кǹҨ§
) ͧѺԴͺͧ˹§ҹ㹡þԨó çâͧѰ/ç÷ͧͤ繪ͺҡѰ ..繼Ԩó繪ͺ§ҹ EIA/EHIA . Ԩó 㹢зçâͧ͡ .繼Ԩó繪ͺ§ҹ EIA/EHIA 㹻Ѩغѹ óçþѲҢҴ˭ (ͧСͺ˹§ҹҤѰ çҧöẺ͡çѰѺ͡) Դѭ˹§ҹԨó繪ͺ§ҹ EIA дѺ . §
.. ͹䢢͡˹ǡѺ㹡ûѺا§ҹ EIA/EHIAѧҡҹкǹþԨóҨҡ . (㹪ǧ ѹ) ҡ㹡ǹҹ ʶҹó͢źҧǹ㹾鹷çҨ¹ŧҡ㹡šз§ҹա
.. çҧͧСͺͧСǴ觪ҵ (..) ͡ʹͤ繵§ҹ EIA/EHIA ѺçâͧѰͧҹ繪ͺͧѰ ͧСͺҪѭѵѡҤسҾǴ觪ҵ .. (ҵ – ) չ¡Ѱ繻иҹѰҡáзǧ˹§ҹǢͧ 駼çسزԴҹǴ繡÷Ѵ͡Ѱ ҨҴ㹡õѴԹ 駻ѭͧѴԧӹҨ˹ҷ͡þԨó§ҹ EIA/EHIA ͧҡ¡ó˹§ҹҤѰͧʶҹҢͧç
.. ѭ/ػäͧСêӹҭ (.) ͡кǹþԨó繪ͺç
) ҹͧСͺͧзӧҹ 㹻 դ.Ѻ觵駨ҡиҹСǴ觪ҵԨӹǹ ҪѭѵѡҤسҾǴ觪ҵ .. 觻Сͺ»иҹ ˹ҷӹҨ͡Ԩ÷ͧѴ§ҹ EIA çسزԹ ҹ 辺ѧҴͧСͺҡҤǹЪѧ/Ѻšз
) ҹкǹ÷ӧҹ âҴ᷹/ʹѺʹعҹдѺҡ鹷ͻСͺþԨóç ö仾ԨóҾ鹷çͧҡͨӡѴҹҳ 繵
.. ѭçҧͧӹѡҹºἹѾҡøҵǴ (ʼ.) зǧѾҡøҵǴ ͡ôԹҹԨó§ҹ EIA/EHIA ʼ.˹çҧѡ˹ҷѺ͹к EIA/EHIA кǹþԨó§ҹ 蹡ͧ/Ǩͺ/ʹͤ繵 .Ф ֧Ѳ෤Ԥ/кǹâͧк EIA/EHIA Чҹ ԴѭҴҹҧ âҴŹѡԪҡ÷դӹҭ§͵ͨӹǹç÷Ԩóл ÷ӧҹẺç(Project-based) ҴͧҾ ͼŨҡ͹ѵç㹾鹷ҧ Դö㹡ûԹʶҹóдѺ鹷
. ѭԧõԴǨͺлԹ
.. ˹§ҹ͹ѵ/͹حҵöԴǨͺûԺѵԵҵáŴšзǴ˹§ҹ EIA/EHIA зк͹䢷͹حҵ ੾зӹҨ¢ͧ˹§ҹ͹ѵ/͹حҵ㹢ͺࢵ鹷çҹ ҴûҹԴǨͺѺ˹§ҹ Ǣͧҧк
.. ѭҡâҴõԴǨͺлԹšûԺѵԵҵáõҧ к§ҹ EIA/EHIA çèӹǹҡ軮ԺѵԵ͹䢷ҧҧ觤Ѵ ҷҧ ʼ.աèѴ駷Դ ʺѭҤ§ͧ͢ؤҡõͨӹǹç ӹҨкŧѺҢͧç÷зӤԴ з觢ҴõԴҹҹԧ鹷աýҽ׹Թç EIA/EHIA ջѭ
ºҵá÷Ǣͧ
. ·ǢͧµçѺèѴ§ҹšзҧǴ (Ѻç/Ԩ ˹Сȡзǧ) 㹻ѨغѹҧԧҪѭѵѡҤسҾǴ .. աšзҧآҾ㹻 .. ҧԧҵ ä ͧѰ٭ .. ѧѭкçҧ㹡èѴ§ҹ EIA/EHIA ѧʶҹóѭҢҧ ҡзǧѾҡøҵǴѴҧ䢾ҪѭѵѡҤسҾǴ觪ҵ .. ҧǡѺ䢻ѺاкšзҹǴآҾ 繡䢻Ѻا͡ûٻԧçҧк EIA/EHIA 觢йӹѡҹСáɮաǨҧ ҧ鹵͹͡ʹ餳ѰվԨó

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